Scalable supercapacitor paves the way for ultra-flexible power supplies

A new discovery by researchers at Duke University and Michigan State University may provide excellent stretchable power for wearable electronics. Supercapacitors are known for their excellent power density. Compared with chemical batteries, they can quickly charge and discharge large amounts of energy, and have a longer lifespan than chemical batteries. Chemical batteries usually have the advantage of storing more energy.

The research team set out to try to develop a truly flexible power supply for the wearable devices they are working on. The goal is to develop innovative devices that can withstand mechanical deformations such as stretching, twisting or bending without losing performance. If the power supply device of the stretchable electronic device is not scalable, the entire device system will be constrained to be non-scalable.

The research team adopted a design by first establishing a small "carbon nanotube forest" on a silicon wafer. There are millions of nanotubes about 20-30 microns high in a small block about 15 nanometers in diameter. Both ends are covered with a layer of gold nanofilm, which reduces the resistance of the final device and makes it transfer charge faster than previous designs.

Place it gold-side down on an elastic substrate that can stretch to four times its normal length under tension. Once opened, the tension is released and the whole thing is wrinkled, squeezing together the nanotubes "trees" in the "forest" at a higher density. Finally, the nanotube "forest" is filled with gel electrolytes, which can capture electrons on the nanotube surface. At this point, the two electrodes are clamped together and a voltage is applied to transfer all the electrons from one side to the other, where the electrons can be stored and then released as energy.

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