Full analysis of the development history of Japanese machine tool industry

Japan, after the United States and Germany, established the third country in the world of machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industrialization.

On the resource and technical conditions, Japan is worse than the United States and Germany. However, with its people's high quality, diligence, conscientiousness, courage, innovation, and unfavorable benefits, and in-depth study of the industrialization experience of the United States and Germany, Japan has established a machine tool industry, manufacturing industry, industrialization power in a relatively short period of time. . Japan is an island country with a small land area (377,000 square kilometers, 1/24.8% of the US 9.373 million square kilometers), and mountainous areas account for 75% of the country. Japan has a population of 127 million, which is 1/2.48 of the United States (314.7 million). The development of the machine tool industry is nearly a hundred years behind the United States. In 1889, the establishment of the Chibei Iron Works began production of the first machine tool. At that time, Japan was in the embryonic period of the machine tool industry. However, the government vigorously supported the machine tool industry. In terms of policies and policies, the machine tool industry was clearly focused on the development of the manufacturing industry, industry and the entire national economy. It has successively proposed the establishment of a country of science and technology and a country of trade. Based on the machine tool industry, the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, electronics and nuclear power industries have been vigorously developed. Due to the large number of talents, the correct management, the excellent quality, the pioneering and innovative, and the breakthrough of various key technical foundations and parts and components, Japan's machine tool technology has become world-class. Since 1982, Japan's machine tool industry strength (output value) has long been the world's first.

Japanese industry has a history of 124 years since its establishment in 1889. It has experienced three stages of cross-cutting in technological development: (1) for the production stage of manual general machine tools (1889-1955), in 66 years, mainly Production of manual ordinary machine tools, technically claim to be 20 years behind the US advanced technology. (2) It is an efficient automated machine tool stage (1956-1976) for production machine, electricity and liquid control. In the past 20 years, it has mainly combined the development needs of automobiles, bearings, motors and other manufacturing industries, and has produced a large number of automatic lines for various automatic machine tools and mass production. In 1974, Japan had 60,700 automatic lines, surpassing the United States by 0.61 million (1973), US auto production of 12.681 million, Japan's 7,082,100, and West Germany's 3.949 million. In general, vehicle production can basically represent the technical strength of a country's manufacturing industry. (3) For the production of automated numerical control (NC) machine tools for medium and small batch production. Due to the higher degree of flexibility than high-efficiency automated machine tools and automatic line heights, the development of high-speed machining and NC machine tools can also expand the range of applications to mass production of automotive, bearings, motors, tools, machines, electricity, liquids, gas and light. With the increasing demand for NC machine tools around the world, Japan is fully committed to the development of NC machine tools to replace the highly efficient automated machine tools of the past. In 1978, the output of NC machine tools in Japan exceeded that of the United States (7,342 in Japan and 5,688 in the United States). Since Japan's NC machine tool production is leading in the world, its machine tool output reached US$3.79 billion in 1982, surpassing West Germany (US$3.748 billion) and the United States (US$3.745 billion) and began to rank first in the world. Since then, the output of NC machine tools in Japan has grown rapidly, and the output value of machine tools has been rising every year. It has been maintained until the year before the crisis of the world economy in 2008. The strength of its machine tool output has been the world's first in 26 years.

After the production of machine tools began in 1889, in the Japanese and Russian wars of 1904, a large amount of military supplies were in urgent need of machine tool production and supply, which greatly stimulated the development of machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industrialization in Japan. Immediately after the outbreak of the First World War (1914-1918), Europe and the United States were busy participating in the war, and Japan took the opportunity to develop the machine tool industry. During this period, the number of manufacturers increased and the strength of the machine tool industry increased. Between 1914 and 1917, the number of machine tools and accessory parts in Japan increased by a factor of two (from 0.22 million to 0.47 million), and it was technically possible to manufacture large machine tools, automatic machine tools and gear machines. In May 1934, the "Japan Machine Tool Industry Federation" was established by large companies such as Chibei, Niigata, Osaka, and Karatsu. The technical assistance and the government put forward rationalization proposals. In April 1938, the Japanese government issued the "Machine Tool Manufacturing Business Law", which incorporated the machine tool industry into the scope of government policies and vigorously supported it. Preferential loans and taxes were granted and necessary financial assistance was granted. The number of machine tool enterprises has grown from 0.039 million in 1932 to 0.198 million in 1938. The total number of employees has increased from 0.41 million to 63,000, and the annual output of machine tools has increased from 0.5 million to 67,300. Due to the expansion of the machine tool industry and industrial strength, during the invasion of China in 1937-1945, in order to intensify the production of various military products, the number of employees in the machine tool industry soared to 126,000.

When the Japanese invasion of China in 1945 failed, the number of machine tools in the country was 750,000, half of which were compensation for war. The output of machine tools after the war is not allowed to exceed 10,000 units. Between 1945 and 1951, due to the shortage of materials, Japan produced only a few thousand small machine tools per year.

In the 1950s, the Korean War broke out. Under the support of the United States, Japan accepted a large number of military orders from the United States. Its machine tool industry developed rapidly. In 1950, the output of machine tools was 0.4 million units. In 1955, it was 18,000 units. In 1960, it increased to 80,000 units. In 1970, it reached 256,000 units. In 1982, the output value of machine tools ranked first in the world.

Since then, the Japanese government has strengthened its leadership and organization of the machine tool industry as the focus of the development of the machinery industry, and has successively formulated and issued the three laws and regulations of “vibration method”, “electromechanical law” and “machine law”. It has played a key and decisive role in accelerating the development of the machine tool industry, improving the level of acceleration and strengthening the competitiveness of machine tools in the international arena.

The "machine vibration method" (the Temporary Measures for the Revitalization of Machinery Industry), which was enacted by the Japanese government in 1956, was originally a five-year period. Since the situation has changed during the implementation, it has been revised twice and extended to 1970. In the formulation of the "machine vibration method", after repeated argumentation, it was finally determined that the machine tool industry and supporting parts were used as breakthroughs. In 1956-1960, the focus was on the modernization of machinery and equipment; from 1961 to 1965, the focus was on strengthening the international competitiveness of machine tool technology and machine tool industry. In 1966-1970, it organized and strengthened technology development and tackled key research topics in products, avoiding low-level disorderly competition in time.

In view of the widespread use of electronic technology in the world, in March 1971, Japan issued the "Electromechanical Law" (Special Measures for the Promotion of Temporary Measures for the Revitalization of the Electronics Industry and Machinery Industry). The deadline is 7 years, and measures to implement and develop mechatronic products are implemented.

In 1978, the Japanese government issued and issued the "Machine Law" (Provisional Measures for the Promotion of Specific Machinery Information Industry) in a timely manner, with a term of 1978-1985. The focus is on the integration of electromechanical information and the improvement of the level and overall quality of mechanical industrial products.

Since 1958, the Japanese government has clearly stipulated that the national machine tool ownership will be investigated and analyzed every five years, and the machine tools will be divided into 0-4, 5-9, 10-19, and 20 years. The gap with foreign counterparts, and timely understanding of the needs of domestic and international market development, thereby optimizing the composition ratio of various types of machine tools, is extremely important to improve the entire manufacturing and industrial production capacity. At the 7th survey in 1987, the number of Japanese machine tools was 792,900 (including 690,900 sets of CNC cutting machines, 66,000 CNC machine tools, and 14,600 machining centers). The national automobile production is 1,225 units (Note: China has conducted a formal investigation in 1995. The national machine tool ownership is 3.835 million units, including 36,800 NC machine tools and 350,700 units, and the automobile production was 460,000 units that year.)

Strengthening the "quality" control, laying a good foundation for the automation of mass production and the production of NC machines for small batches. Before 1937, Japan’s industrial products were of low quality, and the reputation of “Japanese goods” was wiped out. In 1940-1944, Japan developed the Japanese industrial standards based on the study of German industrial standards. In 1940, Japan began to gradually adopt the "machine tool inspection method" developed by Dr. Schlesinger of Germany. With the development of technology, not only the static accuracy of the machine tool needs to be checked, but also the dynamic accuracy of the machine tool needs to be checked. Since the Japanese government stipulates that quality must be paid attention to, the masses consciously organized a quality inspection team, especially for efficient automated machine tools and automatic lines provided by the automotive industry (implementing mass production automation), efficiency, reliability and stability of machine tools. Strict inspections have been carried out with durability. The quality assurance of the Japanese machine tool industry has improved the level of Japanese machine tools, and participated in international competition. It has achieved sublimation and consensus in sensibility and rationality. In the machine tool manufacturing industry, if there is no quality, precision and reliability, there is no Efficient automation, it is even less likely to develop intelligence.

Japan has vigorously selected talents, strengthened scientific research, and promoted the development of machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industry. In 1956, the leadership of Fujitsu Company foresees the coming of the 3C era (Communication Communication, Computer Computer, Control Control), the selection of Inaba for the development of the person in charge, and Chibei as the person in charge of computer development. Since then, the two have worked hard for the professionalism they have been responsible for and have built a world-class enterprise. FANUC, which is led by Inaba, has a world-renowned (NC) system that has occupied 50% of the world market and occupied about 70% of the market in Japan. It has made outstanding contributions to the development of NC machine tools around the world.

FANUC's idea of ​​developing an NC system is very correct, and it has always been technically leading, with the largest market share in the world. Mr. Inaba graduated from the Precision Manufacturing Department of the University of Tokyo (formerly known as the "Arms Manufacturing Department") in 1946. Starting from the work of the grassroots technicians, I am determined to work hard, step by step, and work in the research, development and leadership of the NC system. Its business philosophy and strategy and tactics are: (1) The company is not "big" in "strong" (research and development and financial strength); (2) looking at the direction and acting decisively. In the 18 years (1956-1974), Mr. Inaba has led the technical team to tackle the problem, solved many key technical problems in NC machine control, and tackled the electrical and hydraulic servo motor solutions. When I heard that Gette has newly developed an electric control servo motor, it is correctly determined that this is a new direction for future technological development. So I started to develop by myself, but I have repeatedly failed. So I decided to introduce American technology (complete the formalities within three days), and use this as a technical basis to carry out research, development, innovation and improvement. In today's world, FANUC's technology has always maintained a leading position; (3) FANUC has always attached importance to the "basic theoretical research" and "application technology research" work, and closely integrated the two, giving full play to scientific research, development and innovation. The role of its NC system technology has been maintained at an advanced level. The company has a “Basic Technology Research Institute” to conduct research and development on new technologies in the next 5-10 years. In terms of talent pooling, regardless of country, gender, age, only use. In addition, there is also a powerful “Commodity Development Research Institute”, in which researchers account for 30% of the company's workers. The main task is to conduct market demand research, accept and digest the research results of the Institute of Basic Technology, and combine the needs of the market. Development of new products.

In newly developed products, it is required to achieve fewer parts, lower costs, and reliable work. After completing the design, the product director designer is responsible for leading the trial production of the new product. After the new product trial system is officially adopted and listed, the new task can be taken. In the late 1980s, FANUC established several "automation factories", which used robots and NC machine tools to automate the production of NC systems, robots, spindle motors, servo motors, turret NC drilling machines and electric machining machines. , technically ranked first in the world. As production is automated, quality and productivity are greatly improved. Its NC system is technologically advanced and has always been a leader in the world.

Japan's strategy and tactics for developing NC machine tools are different from those of the United States and Germany. The United States and Germany are mainly engaged in the high-end and advanced NC machine tools of the automotive and aerospace industries. The technology is advanced, but the price is high. In Japan, the large and medium-sized enterprises in the entire machinery manufacturing industry need a large amount of The mid-range high NC machine is the main direction of attack, which can occupy a larger market and obtain greater profits. In the development of NC machine tools, Japan attaches great importance to the development of multi-process composite machining center machine tools, not only quality, precision, efficiency, automation, reliability, stability and durability, but also cheaper. Therefore, it is welcomed in the US, Europe and Asia machinery manufacturing market. In 2010, Japan produced a total of 75,700 gold-cutting machine tools, including 63,200 NC machine tools, accounting for 83.5%; and exporting 45,500 NC machine tools, accounting for 86.2% of NC machine tools. In 2010, it exported 22,200 NC machine tools (first in the world), exported 0.16 million NC machine tools to China (second place), and exported 12,800 machining centers in China (ranked first).

Japan not only attaches importance to the "development and innovation" of products, but also attaches great importance to the "quality" of its products. Japanese companies not only have long-term marketing vision, but their micro-decisions are particularly fast and very timely. Usually pay attention to the changes in the situation, according to market development trends, focus on research, timely statistical research data and demand situation, and work tirelessly, implement rapid and advanced investment, transform technology into commodities in time, and take the lead in occupying the market. Establish a special new product development organization and a flexible management system in the enterprise, identify the products that are urgently needed in the market, and propose development plans in a timely manner. Quick decision making, rapid design, trial production and verification are quickly transferred to the market after being handed over to the production department for production.

Japan's NC machine tools require all kinds of timely and timely, complete basic components, excellent quality and first-class technology. Product development has been introduced to the market faster than the US and Germany. At present, Japan's microelectronic computer technology, communication network technology, and NC control technology (3C) are among the best in the world. In particular, the various functional components, hardware, software and other technologies required for (NC) machine tools are complete with each other, and basic research work is done solidly (such as NC systems, various functional components, machines, electricity, liquid, gas, optical components). , advanced tools, measuring, accessories, precision bearings, electric spindles and servo motors, etc.), very comprehensive. Japan is far-sighted and visionary in developing the world's future intelligent NC machine tools, robots, and flexible spindle systems (FMS) automation plants (FA). At the Japan International Machine Tool Show (JIMTOF) in 2010, Japan's NC machine tool exhibits, accessory innovation, intelligence and environmental protection are among the best in the world, surpassing the United States and Germany.

In general, the Japanese machine tool industry can leap from the machine tool technology in the short term (about 50 years) and become world-class. It is also listed as the world's three major powers of the machine tool industry, manufacturing industry and industrialization with the United States and Germany. The key is to effectively solve the three major factors (people, tools, resources) of human society's production support. Japan has greatly accelerated the development of manufacturing and industrialization. Japan has a small geographical area and lacks resources. It must make full use of limited resources, earnestly and practically exert its creativity, and promote the ownership of each person. Japan attaches great importance to education and cultivates a "team spirit" from an early age. The majority of enterprises implement a "lifelong system" for their employees and try their best to train talents. Through continuous accumulation of skills, technology has been enhanced and the strength of the company has been enhanced. Experts in government and enterprises can be far-sighted and adhere to the constant use of the social technology chain, production chain and supply chain. In the era of knowledge economy in the 21st century, hardware and software must reach world-class, relying on people's cultural and technological "knowledge." The successful experience of Japan becoming a powerful industrial power tells people that the high quality, strict style, hard work, innovation and continuous improvement of the Japanese people are the key to promoting the successful development of their enterprises.

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