China has deepened its trillions of yuan in mining and mining to the depths of the earth.

From 2004 to 2008, a "deep mining" initiative aimed at deepening resources to the Earth brought China more than 1 trillion yuan worth of mineral resources. Facing the severe world energy situation, China may fully launch the exploration and development of deep mineral resources in the earth.
Affected by the large number of existing mines facing resource depletion and changes in the supply and demand situation of domestic energy resources, finding mineral resources deeper into the earth is becoming an urgent choice for China.
Recently, Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council said at the Capital Science and Technology Conference that in the deep exploration of the Earth's resources, the depth of exploration and exploitation of solid minerals in China is mostly less than 500 meters, and some of the world's major mining countries have reached 2,500 meters to 4,000 meters. "We want Do everything possible to improve the level and efficiency of resource exploration and exploitation, and fully tap and utilize various resources."
In addition, Li Keqiang, Vice Premier of the State Council, also clearly stated at the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences that as a large developing country, to solve energy and resource problems, it is necessary to make full use of both domestic and international markets and resources, but it must adhere to the domestic and domestic energy sources. The ability to support resources requires “increase investment and advance planning” to further strengthen geological exploration and strive to achieve major breakthroughs in important resource prospecting.
"Premier Wen’s words are not based solely on technical issues. Rather, it is said that the mineral resources of 500 meters above the ground in China can basically meet the demand. There is no need to vigorously exploit the mineral resources below 500 meters. Now This situation has changed. "Cheng Aiguo, Director of the Geological Department of the China Coal Geology Bureau, told China Economic Weekly.
China's deep prospecting to find trillions of minerals In fact, China's "deep prospecting" work for existing mines began in 2004.
In September 2004, the State Council passed the “National Crisis Mine Replacement Resource Prospecting Planning Outline (2004-2010)”. Since then, China has launched a special mine prospecting mine for mines in the country. The main idea is to “mine mines”. Exploration and mining are carried out to a deeper level on the basis of the original mining depth (generally 300 to 500 meters).
One of the backgrounds of the outline of the plan is that a large number of mineral resources discovered in China in the 1950s and 1960s have been exploited for nearly 60 years, and a large number of them are facing depletion of resources and become so-called "crisis mines". According to the comprehensive survey of 18 kinds of large-scale mineral resources that are most closely related to the development of the national economy from 2003 to 2004 (the survey covers 1,860 of China's 1,010 large and medium-sized mines) The survey concluded that among the 1,010 mines, there were 393 serious crises, which could only be maintained within five years, 109 in the mid-crisis, and 70 in the mild crisis.
According to Ye Tianyu, chief engineer of the National Mineral Resources Potential Evaluation Project Office and chief engineer of the crisis mine replacement resource prospecting project, in 2002, the bankruptcy closure of a large number of mining companies in the eastern industrial bases of eastern China attracted the attention of the central leadership. According to preliminary statistics in 2003, there were 122 non-ferrous metal mines and coal mines approved by the state at the time. In addition, there were hundreds of applications for bankruptcy, and a large number of employees were caused by the collapse of the mining company. Unemployed, there have been more serious mass incidents in individual cities. "The whole situation is more severe."
In addition, in contrast to the depletion of a large number of mine resources and the bankruptcy of mineral companies, with the rapid development of China's economy, the demand for mineral resources has risen rapidly. China's copper, iron, manganese, potash and other important mineral resources. The degree of external dependence has increased year by year.
It is in these two contexts that in 2004, the State Council decided to jointly establish a body by the Ministry of Land and Resources, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Development and Reform Commission, and launched a special mine prospecting mine for major mineral crisis mines nationwide. According to Ye Tianqi, considering the search for a new mineral base in a place without a mine, the general cycle is longer and more difficult. Therefore, the idea of ​​"mine prospecting" was determined, and deep prospecting was carried out on the basis of the original mine.
The challenge that was directly faced at that time was that the drilling methods in China were generally 300 to 500 meters underground, and there were not many 1000 meters. "To drill down to 1000 meters, there is a great difficulty in exploration technology." In addition, many mines have generally conducted deep ore prospecting tests when resources are exhausted, but most of them fail. It is more stressful to find mines in the failed places. But the end result is that Ye Tianqi and others are full of confidence in China's deep mineral resources reserves. As of 2008, among the 216 mines that were conducting deep prospecting, 166 mines found mines, of which 4.589 billion tons were found in coal, 695 million tons were found in iron ore, and 1.636 million tons were found in copper mines. The exploration of the mine is 4.85 million tons, the gold mine is 425 tons, and the silver mine is 5,695 tons. Together with other minerals, the professional department's overall assessment is that the static output value of these resources exceeds 1 trillion yuan.
"Mining prospecting is a very cost-effective thing in terms of economics. It is within the existing mining area of ​​the mine and does not require infrastructure." Ye Tianqi said publicly.
It is meaningless to blindly compare the depth of mining. The exploration and development of deep earth minerals on a larger scale is becoming an important strategic choice for China.
In recent years, deep prospecting plans have been started in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai, etc., in which the general idea and principle of “deep prospecting” determined in Shanxi Province in 2008 clearly stated that the province’s iron and copper, The exploration of industrial ore bodies of important solid minerals such as gold, silver, lead and zinc and other metals has been advanced to 1,400 meters.
However, due to the late start of mine exploration in China, China's reserves and distribution of deep mineral resources are not clearly understood.
Zhang Yongqin, director of the New Technology Division of the Institute of Exploration Technology of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, told China Economic Weekly that at the end of 1999, China launched the first national geological resource survey. However, considering that the supply of mineral resources in China had not yet been tense, From the perspective of mining cost, it is not economical to conduct deep prospecting. Therefore, deep prospecting has not caused much concern.
"In the past, when China's mineral energy could meet the needs, there was no deep prospecting." Cheng Ai told reporters that the contradiction between supply and demand of important metals such as copper, lead, zinc, potash and manganese has increased. The reason is not China's resources. It is exhausted, but now China is developing fast, and it is not easy for mineral resources to keep up with such development speed. Li Keqiang, Vice Premier of the State Council, pointed out during the inspection of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences that "it is necessary to highlight key blocks and key minerals, and organize a new round of prospecting plans to increase the reserves of important mineral resources, so that China's resource security is greater. Increase in range."
In view of the fact that many mineral countries in the world have recently sought to find resources in the deeper parts of the earth, Cheng Aiguo told China Economic Weekly that "blind comparison of mining depth may not make sense."
Internationally, the exploration and development of the deep resources of the earth is more representative. Australia first proposed the "Glass Earth" plan at the beginning of this century, that is, to make the underground 1000 meters "transparent", and the recent plan proposed by Canada. Said to develop to 3,000 meters underground.
In China, although the mineral resources of more than 500 meters underground can not fully meet the demand, there is no clear statement on how many meters to develop underground. In this regard, Cheng Aiguo said, "China's current mining depth is mainly determined by demand, not technology."

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